Tuesday, July 17, 2012

Development of Javanese Language

Java language is the language of the inhabitants of Java, especially in some region of Java island particularly in some provinces such as Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, and Northern coast region in Java, Indonesia.


Dissemination of Java language
Javanese people like to make journeys around the south east Asia region. Thus, Javanese population moving to Malaysia helped bring to the Java language and culture in to Malaysia, so there is a residential area they are known by the name of the village of Java. In addition, the public using Java language as well scattered in various regions of the Republic of Indonesia. Areas outside Java, the Javanese-dominated or in a significant percentage are: Lampung (61%), Bengkulu (25%), North Sumatra (between 15% -25%). Specifically the Java community in North Sumatra, they are the descendants of contract laborers employed in different areas of tobacco plantations, particularly in the Deli, so often referred to as Java or Pujakesuma  Deli (Descent of Javanese people born in Sumatera island) . While the Java community in other areas is spread through the transmigration program, held since the Dutch colonial era.

In addition to the Nusantara region, or Malaysia. Java community is also found in large numbers in Suriname, South America, which reaches 15% of the population as a whole, then at the New Caledonia region and even to Aruba and Curacao and the Netherlands. Fraction even spread to the French Guyana and Venezuela.


Standard dialect of the Java language, which is based on the dialects of Central Java, particularly around the city of Surakarta and Yogyakarta has the following phonemes:

Vocals: Middle Back Front--> e Y o u i ([) (T) a

Consonants: Labial Dental alveolar palatal velar glottal Retrofleks Eksplosiva tƒ pbtd V d 'kg' fricatives s (,) h liquid and nasal semivowel wlrj mn (s) r K

Attention: phonemes between parentheses are allophones.

Vocal explanation

Said pressure (stress) is realized on the penultimate syllable, except when the syllables have a pepet as vocal. In such cases, the pressure falls on the syllables last word, although it also contains pepet last syllables. If a word is imbued with the affixes, the pressure follows the pressure of said fixed base words.

Example: / horse / (horse) spell as [j'aran] and / pajaranan / (the horse) spell as [paj'aranan].

All vowels except / Y /, has allophones. Phoneme / a / in the closed position spell as [a], but in the open position as [T].

Example: / lara / (ill) spell as [l'TRT], but / larane / (illness) spell as [l'arane]

Phoneme / i / in the open position spell as [i] but in the closed position more or less similar lafaznya [e].

Example: / pan / spell as [p'arci], but / deer / spell approximately as [k'arcel].

Phoneme / u / in the open position spell as [u] but in the closed position lafaznya more or less similar [o].

Example: / wulu / (fur) spell as [w'ulu], but / uyul / (tuyul) spell approximately as ['uyol].

Phoneme / e / in the open position spell as [e] but in the closed position as [[]. Example: / catfish / spell

as [l ele], but / duck / spell as [b '[b ["].

Phoneme / o / in the open position spell as [o] but in the closed position as [T].

Example: / loro / spell as [l'oro], but / Bolok / spell as [b'TlTK].

Explanation consonant phoneme / k / has an allophone. At the last position, spell as ["]. While at the center position and the initial fixed as [k].

Phoneme / n / has two allophones. In the early or middle position if they are in front or palatal phoneme eksplosiva retrofleks, the nasal phoneme is changed according to the phoneme homorgan. Then when the phoneme / n / following a / r /, then it will become [s] (retrofleks nasal phonemes).

Example: / panjaK / spell as [p'arjaK], then / anVap / spell as ["'asVap]. Words / colors / spell as [w'arsT].

Phoneme / s / has one allophone. If the / s / followed the phoneme / r / or are in front of phonemes eksplosiva retrofleks, it will be realized as [,].

Example: / warsa / spell as [w'ar, T], then / esi / spell as ["'e, i].


In the standard Java language, an syllables can have the following form: (n)-K1-(l)-V-K2.

Meaning is as follows:

- (N) is a nasal phoneme homorgan.

- K1 is eksplosiva ata liquid consonants.

- (L) is the liquid / r / or / l /, but can only arise if the K1 form eksplosiva.

- V is any vowel. But if K2 does not exist then the phoneme / y / can not be in this position.

- K2 is all consonants except eksplosiva palatal and retrofleks; / c /, / j /, / /, and / V /.


- A

- An

- Pan

- Prang

- Njlen

Java language-dialect dialect

Java language is basically divided into two classifications dialects, namely:

- Regional dialects, and

- Social Dialects

These dialects is made up of gradations language, so they are different from the Bahasa Indonesia and Malay language, although classified as Austronesian family. While the local dialect is based on region, local character and culture. Differences between the dialects of the other dialects can be between 0-70%. For classification based on local dialects, classification refers to the opinions of EM Uhlenbeck, 1964, in his book: "A Critical Survey of Studies on the Languages ​​of Java and Madura", The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff [1].

Western Java language groups

- Banten dialect

- Cirebon dialect

- Tegal dialect dialect

- Banyumasan dialect

- Bumiayu (transition Tegal and Banyumas)

The first group above is often called the Java language-ngapak ngapak.

Central Java language groups:

- Pekalongan dialect

- Kedu dialect

- Bagelen dialect

- Semarang dialect

- North Coast East Dialect (Jepara, Demak, Kudus, Pati)

- Blora dialect

- The dialect of Surakarta

- Yogyakarta dialect

The second group above is often called the standard Java language, especially the dialect of Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

Eastern Java language groups:

- Dialect northern coast of East Java (Tuban, Bojonegoro)

- Surabaya dialect

- Malang dialect

- Jombang dialect

- Tengger dialect

- Banyuwangi dialect (or so-called Language Osing)

The third group is often referred to in the Java language Timuran.

Social dialects in Javanese form as follows:

- Ngoko (for ordinary conversation)

- Ngoko andhap

- Madhya

- Madhyantara

- Kromo

- Kromo Inggil (the most polite Javanese languange level)

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